Brashares, J.S., J.R. Werner, and A.R.E. Both males and females lose up to 1/3 of their body mass in hibernation making seasonal weight variation from spring emergence to the onset of hibernation significant. 2015). 7 pp and 6 maps. The British Columbia Park Act affords habitat protection to marmots living in Provincial Parks. The reason for the decline varied among years. = 142) marmots in the wild in 2017. Like other alpine-dwelling marmot species, Vancouver Island Marmot is limited by low reproductive output. In 2003, there were fewer than 30 Vancouver Island marmots in the wild. Although greater than 9 visits were necessary to obtain a near-complete count of marmots in a colony, two to four counts usually detected 65 to 75% of the animals present. Vancouver Island Marmot Preservation Committee, Nanaimo, British Columbia. 17 pp. Alarm calling in three species of marmots. 96:810 to 826. Manage. Count success was higher earlier in the active season when there was less vegetative cover. Bryant, A.A. 1997. MSc thesis, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. Using these same occurrences, the index of area of occupancy (IAO) based on a 2 X 2-km grid was 248 km2. Thelin et al. 2016). Predation by native predators (Cougar. Prepared for the B.C. 2009) which implies the population has been small for an extended period. Recently logged habitats may also negatively affect the population if dispersers settle and create colonies in these habitats. Mail: PO Box 2332 Stn A, Nanaimo, BC, V9R 6X6 comm., 2016), but this has not been observed in other current and historical colonies (Vancouver Island Marmot Recovery Team 2008). Patches of natural habitat on Vancouver Island tend to be both smaller and located farther apart than those occupied by other marmot species on the nearby mainland and Olympic Peninsula. Even though current inventory efforts focus on known occupied and recently occupied colonies, based on past search efforts (described under “Distribution”), it is unlikely that large colonies of marmots were not counted unless they were recently established colonies in cut-blocks that were not frequented by people. Cortisol and conservation: understanding barriers to the recovery of a critically endangered species using stress physiology. Risograph print on Extrarough Warmwhite 175 grams Metapaper. Routledge, J.D., and W.J. Vancouver Island marmots live in family groups called colonies and hibernate below ground from mid-September until late Populations that colonized ski runs on Green Mountain and mine tailings at Mount Washington during the 1980s became extirpated. Field Coordinator, Marmot Recovery Foundation, Nanaimo, British Columbia. Jackson, C. and D. Doyle. Each year, an average of 2.8 (SD = 3.3, n = 12) captive-born marmots and 2.8 (SD = 3.0, n = 24) wild marmots had their radio transmitters replaced because the transmitter batteries were at or past their life expectancy. = 127, max. The size and number of families varies between colonies and years, often producing dramatic fluctuations in population size in a given location. Duration of hibernation is significantly shorter in captivity (Bryant and McAdie 2003). Spreading Phlox (Phlox diffusa) is important in early summer. 2016a. Fax: 819-938-3984 Region: West Coast. Inouye. Mating occurs below ground in May, shortly after waking from hibernation. The forestry company was consulted, and it was concluded that herbicide use in marmot habitat is not an issue. Also, colonies that become established in high-elevation cut-blocks may not be detected because they occur on private land where public access is restricted; annual marmot surveys by researchers are not routinely conducted in cut-blocks unless known to be occupied. Ecosystem modification resulting from logging and wood harvesting: Medium The reproductive endocrinology and behavior of Vancouver Island Marmot (Marmota vancouverensis). The Vancouver Island marmot (Marmota vancouverensis) is a colonial ground squirrel related to the hoary marmot M. caligata and Olympic marmot M. Olympus. During the 1980s and 1990s, logging occurred at high elevation on Vancouver Island (Lindsay personal communication 2016). 125 pp. A long-term threat to Vancouver Island Marmot is loss of habitat from climate change. Predator discrimination and ‘personality’ in captive Vancouver Island Marmots (Marmota vancouverensis). The Vancouver Island marmot is one of 14 marmot species found around the world and one of the five mammal species endemic to (found only) in Canada. [accessed December 2017]. Bio., Senior Wildlife Biologist, BC Ministry of Forests, Lands, and Natural Resource Operations), Cheyney Jackson (M.Sc., Field Coordinator, Marmot Recovery Foundation), Malcolm McAdie (D.V.M., Wildlife Veterinarian, Marmot Recovery Foundation), Adam Taylor (Executive Director, Marmot Recovery Foundation), Sally Leigh-Spencer (R.P.Bio., Ecologic Consulting), Elizabeth Gillis (Ph.D., Professor, Vancouver Island University). They are also transported by air, and may encounter other mammal species in cargo holds. Endangered species, 88 to 101 in wild pop (includes captive-born marmots that have survived at least 1 hibernation in wild), Reproduction was confirmed by observation, Mountain that had a typical survey effort but no pups were detected, The most recent year adult marmots were confirmed at mountains where adults were not confirmed in 2016, Moderate (Possibly in the short term, < 10 yrs/3 gen). Steps have been taken to ensure this cannot happen again. Vancouver Island Marmot continues to colonize high-elevation cut-blocks, with three cut-blocks found to be occupied between 2015 and 2018. 2015). J. Zool. Locations of potential Vancouver Island Marmot habitats within Strathcona Provincial Park. Fortunately there have been some steps taken to protect this endangered species. Marmots at a geographically disjunct mountain (Mount Washington), however, had been isolated for at least several generations based on DNA analysis (Kruckenhauser et al. Bryant, A.A. and R.E. 2011. Genetic evidence for subspecies differentiation of the Himalayan Marmot, Marmota himalayana, in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.” PLoS One 12 (8):e0183375. Bichet, C., S. Sauzet, L. Averty, P. Dupont, M. Ferrandiz-Rovira, C. Ferrari, I. Figueroa, M. Tafani, C. Rézouki, B.López, and A. Cohas. On a much longer time scale, habitat could be altered by climate change. Mass gain is influenced by local conditions and reproductive status, but an average adult female gains 15 to 18 g per day (COSEWIC 2008). During that time the number of mature marmots remained at >120 (Figure 7). Ministry of Environment, Archibald et al. Vancouver Island marmots are easy to recognize by their rich chocolate brown fur with contrasting white patches on their nose, chin, forehead and chest. For each mountain, minimum and maximum numbers of individuals detected were determined. On average, these marmots weigh 5 kg, with males being larger than females. Written communication to Vancouver Island Marmot Recovery Team. Additional threats that pose a Low or Negligible potential impact include roads and railroads, dams, introduced genetic material, and avalanches (Appendix 2; see also Vancouver Island Marmot Recovery Team 2017 for discussion of low and negligible threats impacts). A wildfire burning out of control on Green Mountain southwest of Nanaimo poses a potential threat to Vancouver Island marmots. First, the contribution of the Vancouver Island marmot to diversity in marmot form (i.e. Deer and Elk Habitats in Coastal Forests of Southern British Columbia. Family: Sciuridae Vancouver Island Marmot constructs burrows in which they hibernate, bear and raise young, hide from predators, and shelter from adverse environmental conditions (Bryant and Blood 1999). Apple Valley, MN. 26: 60 pp. This keeps the population healthy and provides an important safeguard for the species. Hoffmann. x + 41 pp. As its name suggests, the Vancouver Island marmot only lives on the Island. : 819-938-4125 Poor overwinter survival in Strathcona troubling. Adjunct Professor, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario. Archaeological evidence of faunal remains indicates past use, although contemporary ATK was unavailable during the time the COSEWIC status report was in preparation. The potential effects of climate change on the habitat range of the Vancouver Island Marmot (Marmota vancouverensis). If avalanche frequency decreases (because of climate change) forest ingrowth may occur resulting in a reduction in marmot habitat. vii + 29 pp. Production note: COSEWIC would like to acknowledge Elizabeth A. Gillis for writing the status report on Vancouver Island Marmot, Marmota vancouverensis, in Canada, prepared under contract with Environment and Climate Change Canada. Negative effects of habitat alteration, in the form of tree growth, have occurred and are expected to be large on a 20-year time scale (that is, increased forest cover decreases the quality of habitat by increasing risk of predation). 2015). Blumstein, D.T. 1998. Restricted to Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. Marmot phylogeny revisited: molecular evidence for a diphyletic origin of sociality. Because of their extremely small population size and isolation from other locations, marmots at the Schoen Lake and Clayoquot Plateau locations are more susceptible in the short term to the effects of environmental and demographic stochasticity and genetic isolation. Several burrow systems have been occupied for over 30 years. (Updated 2017/05/25) Top April or early May. The following museums have Vancouver Island Marmot specimens in their collections. Cheyney Jackson, personal communication, Sept. 2016. Yearlings generally expand their movements farther from home but usually return to hibernate with their mom a second time. Vancouver Island Marmot studbook report. Alpine marmots, including Vancouver Island Marmot, have low lifetime reproductive output compared to other rodents (Armitage 2014). Cover illustration/photo: Vancouver Island Marmot — Photo by © Jared Hobbs. In comparison, marmot colonies have persisted since at least the 1940s on ski runs, where ingrowing vegetation is cleared on a regular basis and high levels of human activity may deter predator use (Bryant 1998, Vancouver Island Marmot Recovery Team 2008). Vancouver Island Marmot is opportunistic prey for Cougar, Grey Wolf, and Golden Eagle. Captive marmots held within a facility were not considered when evaluating the quantitative assessment criteria. Greig Ridge marmot population supplementation phase IV– Strathcona Park 2010, Project # 10.W.CBR.02. The Vancouver Island marmot (Marmota vancouverensis) is the rarest of all the North American species of marmot; it exists solely on Vancouver Island. The minimum represented the number of unique individuals either seen by researchers or detected alive by telemetry during the active season. In 2017, there were an estimated 135 (min. They may die overwinter (a small negative impact), they may move to another site, or may not be affected. 2015). Graham, L., personal communication 2018. Vancouver Island marmots are … In 2012, the decision to stop captive-born releases to the Nanaimo Lakes subpopulation was made. Post-logging succession decreases the quality of that habitat and with the eventual ingress of trees it can also create a greater risk of predation. When alarmed, marmots give piercingly loud whistles, which earned them the nickname “Whistle Pig”. Province of British Columbia. Additionally, there were 49 marmots in captivity, slightly fewer than half of which (22) were mature individuals. 35 to 45%, n = 424) of breeding pairs successfully wean litters (Figure 4). August, 2017. Bryant, A.A. 1997. Carnio, J. Records based on tagging (Bryant 1990, 1998), radio-telemetry (Bryant and Page 2005) and DNA analysis (Kruckenhauser et al. Laroque, C.P., D.H. Lewis, and D.J. Jackson, C., and M. Lester. 56:497 to 511. Morphometrics and body condition indices and their health implications in captive, captive-release, and wildlife Vancouver Island Marmots (Marmota vancouverensis). 2010). Pups, usually 3 or 4 in a litter, are not seen above ground until late June or July. Predation on marmots will be greatly affected by the number of predators in the area of colonies; the number of predators will be variable and may depend on the number and behaviour of the primary prey of the predators (deer, elk, rabbits). Elk and deer will forage on early successional vegetation in cut-blocks; thus, ecosystem changes following logging at high elevation pose another threat to Vancouver Island Marmot. Web site: COSEWIC. viii + 42 pp. Field Coordinator, Marmot Recovery Foundation, Nanaimo, British Columbia. size and shape) is measured. Vortex: A stochastic Simulation of the Extinction Process. Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Re-Introduction Specialist Group, Abu Dhabi, UAE. Nagorsen, D.W. 1987. This was the result of a distinct phase of population increase following a historic low in 2003 and then a decrease from 2012 to 2017. Unpublished report to B.C. Multiple geographic origins and high genetic differentiation of the Alpine Marmots reintroduced in the Pyrenees. The first marmot pups were born in captivity in 2000 (Bryant 2005). Most colonization events occurred within 1 to 2 km of previously existing natural colonies (Bryant 1998), and most new colonies became much larger than those in adjacent natural habitats (COSEWIC 2008). Humans recreating near marmot colonies probably benefit marmots because marmot predators may avoid areas of high human use. Bryant, A.A. 1996. The population count reported for each year was the average of the minimum and maximum number of individuals detected for that year. Conservation Data Centre. Vancouver Island Marmot is notable among marmots for its unique dark chocolate fur colour and contrasting patches of white fur on the nose, belly and top of the head (Nagorsen 2005). In general, Vancouver Island marmots appear to select hibernacula that are covered during winter by deep snow. Thorington. Dr. Gillis has been a member of the Vancouver Island Marmot Recovery Team since 2008. It is notable for its chocolate brown fur, unique vocalizations, atypical skull characteristics, and highly social nature. 1 to 70 pp. Cut-block colonies, however, would probably go extinct within 5 to 19 years (Bryant 1996, 1998). Some marmots were held overwinter and during the active season while others were held for a quarantine period of at least 30 days before release (Jackson et al. The trend of decreasing habitat is expected to continue with a prediction that under a “worst case” scenario up to 97% of current marmot habitat may disappear by 2080. Burrows (including hibernacula) are commonly re-used over multiple years by the same individuals and social groups (Bryant 1998). Vancouver Island Marmot is endemic to Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. B.C. Western Geography 10:43 to 63. Morphological evolution in marmots (Rodentia, Sciuridae): size and shape of the dorsal and lateral surfaces of the cranium. The unique call is a frequent, short (0.29 ± 0.02 second) “kee-aw” call not used by other species of marmot (Heard 1977). Between 2006 and 2013, there were 10 natural dispersal events among the colonies in the Nanaimo Lakes subpopulation, with 50% of these dispersers eventually breeding where they settled (Jackson and Doyle 2013) and in 2015, two new mountains in the Strathcona subpopulation were naturally colonized by dispersers (Jackson and Lester 2015). There have been three instances where yearling females have bred and successfully weaned litters in captivity; yearling males have never bred in captivity (Table 1). The Vancouver Island Marmot is only found on Vancouver Island and as such is one of the most endangered animals in the world. Royal BC Museum, Victoria, British Columbia. Bryant, A.A., and D.W. Janz. 1983. First year site fidelity and survival in reintroduced captive-bred Vancouver Island Marmots (Marmota vancouverensis). Également disponible en français sous le titre Évaluation et Rapport de situation du COSEPAC sur la Marmotte de l’île de Vancouver (, , in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.” PLoS One 12 (8):e0183375, Species at Risk Act: COSEWIC assessments and status reports, Wildlife species description and significance, Acknowledgements and authorities contacted, Appendix 1. Roughly the size of a house cat, these members of the rodent family are extremely sociable, often seen greeting one another with nose-touching and play fighting. 1911. Inouye, D.W., B. Barr, K.B. Hibernacula can be identified either by the grass and mud “plugs” found at tunnel entrances in late autumn, or by emergence tunnels through the snowpack in May or early June. Vancouver Island Marmot requires deep colluvial soils; these loose, unconsolidated sediments found at the bottom of steep slopes are suitable for burrow construction. Radio-telemetry suggests that marmots hibernate as family groups, and often re-use hibernacula in subsequent years. Purpose: Management of critical habitat for the Vancouver Island Marmot. Vancouver Island Marmot Recovery Team. This gregarious and lively rodent lives in about the distribution or biology of the Vancouver the mountainous regions of Vancouver Island. In total, the population increased by 288 or 284%, assuming exponential or linear growth, respectively. If a disease causes high mortality, it will probably have a large negative effect in a small area and then die out. 1 to 12 pp. Description . Loss of genetic diversity associated with a small population size may increase the susceptibility of marmots to disease, but risk of exposure is unknown. Seasonal diets of Vancouver Island Marmots. Marmots may be more at risk of threats from roads when dispersing, but dispersers are usually young males whose death will have less of an effect on population numbers than if dispersers were females. 2015) with five mountains receiving supplementation in 2017 (Jackson personal communication 2017a). In addition to colony visits, marmots with radio transmitters were monitored using telemetry both from the ground and air for spring emergence, movements and survival, and entrance into hibernation (Vancouver Island Recovery Team 2017). Ministry of Environment Wildlife Bulletin B-39, Victoria, B.C. The Vancouver Island Marmot is considered critically endangered by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. They reach a maximum weight of about 15.5 pounds. McAdie, M. 2015. Vancouver Island Marmot is endemic to Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. Spatially, the Canadian distribution of Vancouver Island Marmot is composed of four geographically isolated sub-populations. Armitage, and B.D. 23 pp.} Prepared for the B.C. Recently logged areas may provide "good" marmot habitat temporarily, but it is ephemeral habitat that decreases in quality as trees start to regrow and close in. Simulations for the PVA were generated for a 100-year period whereas endangered status for Criterion E is assed relative to a five-generation period (~ 26 years). = 86, max. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. In contrast, over a 10 year time scale, collection of marmots for captive breeding will have a positive effect on the population because captive born marmots are released back into the wild. Based on the measured genetic distances among species, M. olympus diverged from the M. caligata – M. vancouverensis lineage ~ 2.6 MYA and M. vancouverensis diverged from M. caligata ~ 0.4 to 1.2 MYA (Steppan et al. 2009. Recovery efforts for Vancouver Island Marmots, Canada. The Vancouver Island marmot is endemic to Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. Marmot Recovery Foundation, Nanaimo, British Columbia. Vancouver Island Marmot Fast Fact: In the wild this particular marmot will hibernate for about 210 days. Ongoing predation remains high and there are potential threats from inbreeding and climate change. 1984. Poster presentation. 2015. Marmot Recovery Foundation. The presence of workers near marmot colonies probably benefits marmots because marmot predators may avoid areas of high human use. Bryant, A.A. 1996. Helminths of a Vancouver Island Marmot, Marmota vancouverensis Swarth, 1911, with a description of Diandrya vancouverensis sp. Jackson, C., personal communication 2016b. September, 2016. The Vancouver Island Marmot also inhabits recent clearcut habitats at elevations as low as 730 m (Bryant and Janz 1996). The natural habitat of Vancouver Island Marmot consists of subalpine meadows, usually at 900 to 1500 m above sea level. Like other marmot species, Vancouver Island marmots are highly social; they live in colonies, rub noses in greeting and play fight like boxers. TimberWest, Island Timberlands, and Mount Washington Alpine Resort permitted the use of spatial data of Vancouver Island Marmot on their private lands, and Larissa Thelin and Jenny Wu calculated the extent of occurrence. 12 pp. More recently, there was high mortality due to Cougar (Puma concolor) predation at another location. The population counts included in this report excluded captive-born marmots in the year of their release. September, 2016. Marmots may be killed through poaching or collected from the wild to augment the captive breeding population. Two models were constructed to explore the extremes in demographic rates observed for the Nanaimo Lakes subpopulation. Ministry of Environment. Designations are made on native species for the following taxonomic groups: mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fishes, arthropods, molluscs, vascular plants, mosses, and lichens. The last “new” wild marmot colony was discovered in 1985. Bacon. A successful captive- Marmot Ecology. In 2017, five marmots (one adult female and four yearlings) in cut-block colonies and one dispersing marmot were trapped and moved to natural colonies (Jackson personal communication 2017a). Based on all hibernacula and colonies that have been occupied within the last 10 years, the extent of occurrence was 5,653 km2 (Figure 3). The first two years of the most recent population decline, 2013 to 2015, were characterized by decline in the number of sub-adults (pups and yearlings). J. Zool. Kenagy, C. Zawadzki, R. Robles, E.A. 10 pp. Spreading the marmots around in several smaller colonies guards against a total collapse of the species if any one colony should suffer a catastrophic event. NATURE AND CULTURE . Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. 83:674 to 682. Bryant, A.A. 2007. IUCN SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group. Chart illustrating population trend of captive Vancouver Island Marmots from 1997 to 2017. Results suggested that Vancouver Island Marmot had a high probability of persistence if survival rates were consistent with the observed growth of the population. Environment and Climate Change Canada Xl + 784 pp. The Vancouver Island Marmot: status and management plan. Species: vancouverensis. Également disponible en français sous le titre Évaluation et Rapport de situation du COSEPAC sur la Marmotte de l’île de Vancouver (Marmota vancouverensis) au Canada. From 2012 to 2017, marmots were not bred at the Mount Washington Recovery Centre, but the Centre temporarily housed captive marmots scheduled for release. Chart illustrating trends in numbers of captive-born Vancouver Island Marmot pups weaned and released from 1997 to 2017. Climate change is affecting altitudinal migrants and hibernating species. Vancouver Island Marmot (Marmota vancouverensis: Swarth 1911) was originally described from specimens collected in 1910 (Swarth 1911, 1912) and is one of 15 extant species within the genus (Armitage 2014). Many marmots colonized and reproduced successfully in human-altered habitats. Further to the Terms and conditions for this website, some of the photos, drawings, and graphical elements found in material produced by COSEWIC are subject to copyrights held by other organizations and by individuals. It is unlikely that the two species would hybridize even if in the same habitat. A population viability analysis suggests that there is a high probability of extinction if there are extended periods of low adult survival, as observed during previous and most recent declines, and there are relatively few captive-bred animals introduced into the extant wild colonies. Since the last assessment in 2008, the species has demonstrated a rapid population increase and then a subsequent decline; there are currently an estimated 88 to 101 mature animals in the wild. Bunnell, F.L. Additional limitations include genetic isolation and a lack of suitable habitat within dispersal distance of active colonies. 2010. Federal Register. Cardini, A., D. Nagorsen, P. O’Higgins, P.D. 101 pp. 2015). Both females and males are attentive parents, carefully guarding the nest burrow and otherwise standing guard: pups remain near their natal burrow for their first year and hibernate with their mother in late September. IUCN SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, MN. 1 to 19 pp. Vancouver Island marmot, M. vancouverensis endemic to Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada Yellow-bellied marmot , M. flaviventris found in southwestern Canada and western United States Additionally, four extinct species of marmots are recognized from the fossil record: Just like our grandmothers told us, “it isn’t wise to keep all your eggs in one basket.”. 2016. Environ. Kamloops, British Columbia. Dispersers are most frequently two-year-old males and females. Vancouver Island marmots are chocolate brown in colour with a white patch on their chest, muzzle, and the top of their head. The captive population has mitigated declines in the wild population and can continue to do so. More recently (2017), there was high mortality due to Cougar predation at another location. The probability of extinction (PE100) remained low across a range of values for carrying capacity and initial population size. To maintain the initial population size under the declining population model, mortality rates would have to be reduced by 40%, or the population would require augmentation with 25 effective releases (that is, captive-born releases that survive to the spring following their release) per year (Jackson et al. PhD thesis. One idea is that they came during the Illinoian glacial period, about 100,000 years ago. In 1978, COSEWIC designated its first species and produced its first list of Canadian species at risk. 1979), pelage (Nagorsen 1987), and behavior (Heard 1977). Werner (2005) reported that the mean date of marmot immergence into hibernation was almost three weeks later in 2002 to 2004 compared with 1973 to 1975 (but see also Bryant and McAdie 2003), which means they were susceptible to predation for a longer period. Canadian Wildlife Biology and Management 6:66 to 78. 2019. Currently, ~ 60% of active colonies are in the Mountain Hemlock and 38% are in Coastal Mountain-heather Alpine zones (Thelin et al. The small population size puts the Vancouver Island Marmot at risk of extinction (Jackson et al. Vancouver Island Marmot - Buttle Lake Supplementation Project - Project # 16.W.CBR.01. Vancouver Island marmots usually have litters of 3 to 4 pups, though litter size can range from 1 to 7. Small, simple burrows may be used for a quick escape from a predator and larger more complex burrows are used for hibernation and birthing and may have numerous passages and exits. Areas within the boundaries of the Haley Lake Ecological Reserve are protected from industrial resource extraction under the British Columbia Ecological Reserves Act, and marmot habitat within the Green Mountain Wildlife Management Area is protected under the British Columbia Wildlife Act. Ottawa. 1985). Vancouver Island Marmot was apparently more widely distributed, and presumably more abundant, during warmer and drier conditions that prevailed over several periods in the past. The Vancouver Island marmot (Marmota vancouverensis) is a colonial ground squirrel related to the hoary marmot M. caligata and Olympic marmot M. Olympus. Elizabeth Gillis is a professor of wildlife biology in the Department of Resource Management and Protection at Vancouver Island University. J. Wildl. = 142), of which 91 (min. Initially there was poor reproduction, which coincided with very dry summers, and there was also low overwinter survival at one colony following a dry summer. Threat assessment participants mines are ever re-opened, the decision to downsize the captive population has mitigated declines in spring! These habitats, however, the Vancouver Island Marmot ( Marmota vancouverensis ) change strategy granted permission to the. 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