Later historians, like van Millingen and Steven Runciman have accepted this theory as well. , The moat was situated at a distance of about 20 m from the outer wall. The outer wall is known as the Wall of Leo, as it was constructed by Leo V the Armenian (r. 813–820) in 813 to safeguard against the siege by the Bulgarian ruler Krum. During 324–336 the city was thoroughly rebuilt and inaugurated on 11 May 330 under the name of "Second Rome". Only short sections of their 30-foot- (9-metre-) high masonry still remain along the Golden Horn.  The northern shore of the city was always its more cosmopolitan part: a major focal point of commerce, it also contained the quarters allocated to foreigners living in the imperial capital.  The next gate is that of Eis Pegas (Πύλη εἰς Πηγάς, Pylē eis Pēgas), known by Latin chroniclers as Porta Puteae or Porta del Pozzo, modern Cibali Kapısı. "The Late Byzantine Army: Arms and Society 1204–1453". The Galata Tower, then called Christea Turris ("Tower of Christ"), and another stretch of walls to its north were built in 1349. Van Millingen identifies it with the Old Golden Gate, while Janin considers it to have been located on the northern slope of the Seventh Hill. With cannons mounted on its main towers, the fort gave the Ottomans complete control of the passage of ships through Bosporus, a role evoked clearly in its original name, Boğazkesen ("cutter of the strait"). Walls of Constantine and Walls of Theodosius II Byzantine Empire Map Capital Constantinople Split of the Roman Empire as East and West. In addition to the amazing views and unique interaction with physical history, walking the length of the walls of Constantinople also offers a glimpse into the city’s meteoric rate of gentrification. The Walls of Constantinople are a series of stone walls that have surrounded and protected the city of Constantinople (today Istanbul in Turkey) since its founding as the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire by Constantine the Great. Enemy access to the walls facing the Golden Horn was prevented by the presence of a heavy chain or boom, installed by Emperor Leo III (r. 717–741), supported by floating barrels and stretching across the mouth of the inlet. The outer wall likewise had towers, situated approximately midway between the inner wall's towers, and acting in supporting role to them. The Balat Kapı has been variously identified as one of them, and as one of the three gates on the Golden Horn known as the Imperial Gate (Πύλη Βασιλικὴ, Pylē Basilikē).  The debate has been carried over to a Latin inscription in metal letters, now lost, which stood above the doors and commemorated their gilding in celebration of the defeat of an unnamed usurper:. In response, the sea walls were renovated in the early 8th century under Tiberios III (r. 698–705) or Anastasios II (r. In both the scenarios in which Constantinople appears, the team color is blue, and they are of the Byzantines civilization. Further expansions followed in 1387, 1397 and 1404, enclosing an area larger than that originally allocated to them, stretching from the modern district of Azapkapı north to Şişhane, from there to Tophane and thence to Karaköy. The section of the Theodosian Walls that adjoins the walls of Blachernae, with the Palace of Porphyrogenitus in the background, as they appear today in suburban Istanbul. Its modern Turkish name, Gate of Selymbria (Tr. Berlin: W. de Gruyter & Co.. Majeska, George P. (1984).  However, the first actual reference to their construction comes in 439, when the urban prefect Cyrus of Panopolis (in sources often confused with the praetorian prefect Constantine) was ordered to repair the city walls and complete them on the seaward side. With some of its recessed walls and arches still visible, it serves as a recreation area.  It was known in late Ottoman times as the Tabak Kapı. He repaired the marble towers and garrisoned the fort with loyal Catalan soldiers, but had to surrender it to John V Palaiologos (r. 1341–1391) when he abdicated in 1354. In close proximity on the outer side of the walls lay the Church of St. Nicholas Kanabos, which in 1597–1601 served as the cathedral of the Patriarch of Constantinople.. Mehmed surrounded Constantinople from land and sea while employing cannon to maintain a constant barrage of the city’s formidable walls. He showed a successful administration and secured the borders. Modern photograph of the Golden Gate, showing the two flanking towers. Employing the city's "Circus factions" in the work, the walls were restored in a record 60 days, according to the Byzantine chroniclers and three inscriptions found in situ. They consist of a series of single walls built in different periods, which cover the suburb of Blachernae. , The Fifth Military Gate (Πόρτα τοῦ Πέμπτου) lies immediately to the north of the Lycus stream, between towers 77 and 78, and is named after the quarter of the Pempton ("the Fifth") around the Lycus. With the addition of transverse walls on the peribolos between the inner and outer walls, it formed a virtually separate fortress.  Recently, it has been suggested that this gate is actually the Gate of St. Romanus, but the evidence is uncertain. It marked the western end of the Venetian quarter. , In the early centuries, the imperial guard consisted of the units of the Excubitores and Scholae Palatinae, which by the late 7th century had declined to parade-ground troops. Contemporaries described it as wealthy, well-peopled and well-fortified, but this affluence came to an end due to its support for Pescennius Niger (r. 193–194) in his war against Septimius Severus (r. 193–211).  Severus punished the city harshly: the strong walls were demolished and the city was deprived of its civic status, being reduced to a mere village dependent on Heraclea Perinthus. 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